Stonehenge Solutions --- Solving Stonehenge
A site to re-energise the quest for a solution to the Stonehenge enigma, that seems, lately, to be rarely aired in public where the whole subject does seem to have run out of fresh idea. On this 'Home' page look for new ideas, new theory for this most intransigent of problems. On the 'Forum' tab bring out your own ideas, your reaction to others, raise other possibilities, more feedback. The 'Forum' tab is your chance to give your thoughts on Stonehenge or to comment on what you have seen here.
It does seem, at this point in time, that there is a famine of new ideas towards solving the Stonehenge purpose.
With all due respect to many professionals who have spent many years striving for a greater understanding, it may well be that any successful new ideas, going forward, may have to come from other disciplines, other areas of knowledge, other ways of looking at the question.
One can only hope that there can be a general and widespread tolerance of new thinking by those who already consider themselves expert in the subject of Stonehenge studies. It is hoped that this site can be very much focussed on the intellectual aspect of Stonehenge. Until the potential knowledge and idea aspects can be far more drawn out to public debate it seems pointless to keep trying to physically dig some vital new inspiration from the soil on which the monument stands.
It is very easy to resort to destructive criticism of the ideas of others but this does not help the debate and may only succeed in scaring off sources of new idea that could actually lead to developments of great significance. After all, can there be many out there who do NOT want to see the Stonehenge puzzle solved?
There is a partner site to this one at:- www.secsignals.co.uk There you can find more extensive description of the themes that are described on this site. Also several other, different themes covering different aspects of the design and intellectual content of Stonehenge.
This first section contains the full text, c. 25 pages, of the document that was recently forwarded (3rd March 2022) to the 'Breakthrough Organisation' in America. Breakthrough Organisation' is a multi-million dollar organisation employing very highly advanced technology and professional astronomers and mathematicians in an organised search beyond our planet for signs of external Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence - ETI. Their main tool for this search is Radio Astronomy and they hope to find evidence of intelligently sourced radio activity emanating from any distant celestial origin.
This would be presumed to be the evidence that they seek for ETI from another, external, intelligent civilization elsewhere in the Cosmos. It would be evidence that the human race is 'not alone'. It would answer one of the greatest questions that has ever faced mankind.
I believe that this accompanying document that I have just submitted to Breakthrough on 3rd March 2022 DOES provide the first ever identified proof of this proposition that 'we are not alone'. And it provides the necessary information for a route into a process, through Radio Astronomy, to locate the source of External Intelligence Where they live.
And, of course, it comes out of my study of the numbers that can be found within the form of construction of Stonehenge.
There will almost certainly be a great quantity of cynicism and instant dismissal by many. But let those cynics argue away the numbers within my document.
To access the full document operate the red PDF button below.
The Possibility of Impossibility. or On The Origin of Human Intelligence.
The likelihood that certain events, that never should have happened, already have.
This document contains an account of numbers that should never have happened but already have.
The Possibility of Impossibility
On The Origins of Human Intelligence
How summer and winter solstices were combined to produce the initial plan. - What the solstice link at Stonehenge is REALLY about.
The exploitation of the different horizon positions of the two solstices at Stonehenge was absolutely fundamental to the whole design and function of the monument. The main Stonehenge Axis is exactly aligned for summer solstice sun RISE in one direction (Heelstone), and for winter solstice sun SET in the opposite direction (through the Great Trilithon archway slit). OBVIOUSLY THIS WAS NOT ACCIDENTAL. It exploits the unique astronomical fact that, in each hemisphere of the Earth, this diametrical opposition only occurs at one very specific latitude on the Earth's surface. In the northern hemisphere it is that latitude at which Stonehenge is built.
Astronomically the VERY SIMPLE POINT is that any cosmic sky we may see from a fixed site is exactly identical throughout the year EXCEPT FOR THE TIME OF RISING which alters steadily, day by day, through an annual cycle. The sky that rises exactly with the sun at mid-summer DAWN will rise at the same place and be EXACTLY THE SAME at mid-winter BUT TWELVE HOURS LATER, i.e. at DARKNESS.
If we could mark an important STELLAR (stars) rising (not SOLAR - sun, or LUNAR - moon), for instance, at NORTH EAST with sun RISE at DAWN at mid summer (4 A.M.), we could mark that very same STAR rising at the same horizon point at DARKNESS at mid winter with sun SET (4 P.M.) but the sun would be at SOUTH WEST. The sun, because it is part of our own local and close SOLAR SYSTEM, would be at a different point at mid winter. BUT THE STELLAR OBJECT WILL ALWAYS RISE AT THE SAME NORTH EAST POINT because is part of the far more distant COSMIC sky.
Only provided that we can build our monumental marker at the correct latitude, then we can achieve this property of having everything diametrically opposite as it does along the Main Stonehenge Axis. THIS IS ONE OF THE VERY FUNDAMENTAL REASONS for the choice of site, the layout, and the construction of Stonehenge as was. To argue otherwise is to ascribe all of this astronomically rich design totally to co-incidence - pure luck!
If the foregoing sounds complicated you need to think about this layout for about three minutes and it can actually be seen to be very simple in practise. Awesomely simple, precise, accurate, economical and monumental. And astronomy and structure fit exactly.
It will be said that this concept was too advanced for 'primitive' minds. How do we know what their brains could achieve - just look at their building skills? And we can be confident that the were observing the cosmic sky for centuries - even millennia - before Sarsen Stonehenge.
It may be objected that stellar objects are not visible close to the horizon due to our atmosphere. This is correct. O.K. lets build an artificial horizon so that we CAN see a stellar object when it IS visible. (We can call our artificial horizon 'LINTELS'.)
(For interest:- the arc of horizon encompassed (from Great Trilithon arch) between Main Axis and the open ended 'Entrance' to Bluestone and Trilithon Horseshoes comfortably accommodates the poorly visible section of a cosmic object's rising trajectory from horizon to more visible altitude above the lintels. Such a cosmic object would appear above the lintels just before it rose past the north east ends of the Horseshoes. The Horseshoes 'embrace' that small sector of the sky that would have contained a stellar object that had risen just beyond the Heelstone and fitted within the scenario that I have described above. Better still - The two Horseshoes actually embrace a tiny GROUP of stellar objects until they rise above the lintels, i.e. my 'Regulus Group' to which I refer in many places elsewhere within my work, and which appear to be the primary object of the whole Stonehenge project. We have finished up with a 3-dimensional portrayal of just one significant stellar event c. 2340 B.C.)
Stonehenge, its size, complexity, and sheer physicality, is enormous. It follows that the motivation for the builders was equally monumental. To understand what they were seeing and why, then you must look with their eyes, beyond our solar system and out to the Cosmos. It is very easy. Neolithic eyes! Neolithic vision!
The subject matter of the Trilithons described above, is dealt with in much greater detail on the next page ('tab') accessed above on the header with the button marked' Trilithons'. Go there to read and see more description and graphic.
Astronomy at Stonehenge No. 1 Posted 5th November 2020
The Earth rotates, in space, once per day. Around the Earth the sky is seen as the inside of the CELESTIAL SPHERE. All of the features of the surrounding sky - stars, moon, constellations, etc., appear in their expected positions upon the CELESTIAL SPHERE (also known as the COSMOS).The axis of rotation of the Earth is its POLAR AXIS. At one end is the NORTH POLE. At the other end is the SOUTH POLE. The principle of this rotation about the POLAR AXIS is very important to understand.
At any point on the surface of the Earth, with reasonably flat horizons, an observer will see half of the Celestial Sphere (a HEMISPHERE). And one end of the rotation axis. (The north pole in the northern hemisphere.)
(B):- Vertical Background
The hemisphere can be imagined, if cut vertically, as an ARC stretching from one horizon at zero altitude (0*), upwards to vertically above at altitude 90* (the ZENITH POINT), and back down to the opposite horizon again at zero 0*. (See diagram below.)
The Arc can be subdivided into smaller sections. Here it is subdivided into sections of 10*. Following diagrams will illustrate how this works in practise and how a celestial point on the celestial sphere can be 'transferred' and its position 'fixed' upon a flat, horizontal 'map' of the sky. For instance a celestial object seen halfway between level horizon and zenith point (altitude 45*) can have its altitude marked with a device consisting of two straight, hinged sticks and a plumb bob. Similarly a Celestial point at altitude 51* can also have its position marked in this way. One stick is parallel to level ground, the other sights on the celestial point. The plumb bob hangs from the tip of the sighting stick and identifies the position of the object on the flat surface where it can be marked.
(Co-incidentally this has also marked altitude 45*, or the halfway point, and altitude 51* on to the horizontal 'map'.) (It is not essential to measure a value in degrees. The act of marking and 'fixing' the angle and the celestial point is what matters.)
(C):- Horizontal (or flat) Background
The Arc has a base-line, flat to the ground, which can be in any direction at the discretion of the observer. The starting point for fixing the base-line is, by convention, the axis of due north to due south (POLAR AXIS). For Stonehenge this is the POLAR AXIS through the centre of the monument. Also, by convention, the N - S axis is given a value of 0* because it is the starting point. This value of 0* is the AZIMUTH value for the POLAR AXIS. By observing at other directions, round from the Polar base-line of 0*, a base-line at an angle to the polar base-line is established. The angle between the polar axis and this next base-line is the AZIMUTH value of this second base-line. At Stonehenge it is necessary to turn from the polar axis by c, 51* to observe the centre of the Heelstone and the Stonehenge MAIN AXIS line. Therefore a MAIN AXIS line for Stonehenge has azimuth c. 51*.
(D):- Combining Vertical and Flat Horizontal Background
We can notionally lower a vertical line down from any selected point on the VERTICAL ARC of the CELESTIAL HEMISPHERE (a celestial object - star, planet, w.h.y.), down to the flat horizontal surface below. We can do this for the 10* sub-divisions that we applied earlier and mark them on to our flat surface. (See diagram below.)
If we then rotate the vertical arc about its centre to a second azimuth bearing and repeat the marking procedure, and then a third, and fourth, and so on, we eventually rotate a full circle back to where we started on the polar axis.
On the way we have created a FLAT, CIRCULAR map, upon our FLAT SURFACE of the altitude sub-divisions on our VERTICAL CELESTIAL ARC. Now we have a circular GRID MAP or CHART on a flat surface representing the CURVED CELESTIAL ARC above.
Particularly note the fact that the grid lines for equal sub-divisions on the sphere above are now not equally spaced on the chart. The separation increases as we read from the edge (HORIZON) towards the centre (ZENITH). This is because we have transferred a circular ARC on to a FLAT, HORIZONTAL surface. This VERY simple fact is one of the principle keys to the interpretation of Stonehenge. Stonehenge has to be read as is, not as modern science might think that it might have been.
We can now apply this procedure to Stonehenge. The procedure was known as ; - 'As Above, So Below' - and was used in Ancient Egypt and probably Mesopotamia at the time that Stonehenge was being developed through to the Sarsen monument, c. mid 3rd millenium B.C. We can take as our base-line the N - S axis through Stonehenge with centre at centre. Zenith point vertically above centre at altitude 90*. Because Stonehenge is at LATITUDE c. 51*, the ALTITUDE of the NORTH POINT is at 51*. (Remember that the North point is the very important NORTH END of the apparent axis of rotation of the CELESTIAL SPHERE - the 'COSMOS' or 'HEAVENS ABOVE.)
Now see diagram no. 3 on left.
The NORTH POINT is at altitude 51* above FLAT. We can drop this point on to our ALTITUDE GRID, and then we can produce an ALTITUDE CIRCLE on our circular grid to represent altitude 51* in all directions. (We still do not need any numbers or units for this procedure - just relative positions vertically and horizontally. The circle that we have just marked now 'holds' the North Point.)
To now recreate the Stonehenge scenario we can simply super-impose the plan of Stonehenge on to our circular grid. Zero horizon is taken as the inner, smoother, and better finished face of the Sarsen Circle. - The circle that 'holds' the sky and the Cosmos. Polar axis of grid is aligned with N - S of monument.
Immediately we can see that the final outer edge of Trilithon upright no. 60 stands upon altitude line 51* of the altitude grid. (The altitude line for the North Point.) Therefore upright no. 60 corresponds, on its final, outer edge, to altitude 51*. A lucky fluke indeed?
If we now consider the south direction of the Polar Axis we can see that the axis passes through Trilithon upright no. 54 and towards south. Trilithon upright 54 does not stand upon altitude line 51*. But it does have a large, high and, for the Trilithons, unique pointed bulge on its outer face. This bulge DOES fit neatly to altitude line 51*. And yet again the INTERSECTION of CIRCLE and AXIS, this time for south.
Furthermore we can see that this same point on the outer, final edge of no. 60 also stands upon the N - S polar axis through Sarsen Stonehenge. - the INTERSECTION of CIRCLE and AXIS for north - their CROSSING POINT. Obviously a second lucky fluke?
Therefore a circuit of altitude 51* has touched uprights nos. 60 and 54. And both stones at the point where the Polar Axis passes through. A third and fourth lucky fluke? One begins to lose count! Could it be that these features were designed into Stonehenge from the outset?
(F):- If the creators / builders of Stonehenge were indeed incorporating such 'advanced' astronomical concepts into the monument, then the implications are profound in several directions.
1):- First and foremost is that, if they were capable of such 'science' / understanding of the mechanics of the Cosmos / observation and calculation / architectural design and achievement, then what else should we be looking for here? How clever were they? Is there a limit to what science and knowledge we should consider 'reasonable'? And if there is a limit then how are we to establish that limit? Presumably we can only do so BY APPLYING AND TESTING SEEMINGLY OUTLANDISH HYPOTHESES - testing them against the design of Stonehenge. It simply is not acceptable for professional academics in high and privileged positions to condemn out of hand 'outlandish' ideas because they, personally, just don't 'like the look' of them. Such attitudes are stultifying, condescending, patronising, even ignoring the fact that those same academics are unable to put forward anything better.
2):- 'Advanced' scientific knowledge does not obviously fit with theories that the primary purpose for which Stonehenge was constructed was as some kind of burial site, mortuary, morgue, cremation site, celebration of death, the dead and the dying. Just possibly the 'death' theme was a secondary use for the monument in later ages by later inhabitants who also had little idea of its original intention. But that's all.
3):- The preceding narrative concerning north - south axis and north point within the design of Stonehenge although apparently touching upon quite advanced astronomical concepts, does not appear to put these concepts at a 'priority' position, or as a 'main central feature' of the whole monument. For instance, the two Trilithon uprights 60 and 54 are certainly not central. The marking of intersections of circle 51* and polar axis is also not particularly a central feature. Indeed upright 54 only marks the south features on its OUTSIDE face which would not be priority against the INNER face. The clear implication is that there are 'BIGGER THINGS' waiting to be revealed, And that must mean more knowledge and greater intelligence!
Clearly it is time for research to grow up and adopt inquiring attitudes and show curiosity, not abject dismissal of anything that does not accord with pre-conceived opinion. My over-riding concern is that we need to find exactly what is the nature and extent of the so far unknown knowledge and intelligence within Stonehenge FIRST, before we can begin to investigate HOW IT CAME TO BE. Its time to control the hard-wired gut instinct to squash all suggestion that something DIFFERENT, UNUSUAL and even possibly ALIEN lies concealed within the INTELLECTUAL Stonehenge. Its time to begin a MATURE discussion about the ACHIEVEMENT of our incredible artefact.
For much more on the subject of Stonehenge and advanced knowledge visit:-
Astronomy at Stonehenge:- Part 2. 'How the mid-summer sun was captured'
In instalment no.1 of this series I described the principle of transferring positions of Celestial objects from the Celestial Sphere overhead on to a flat ground surface. By this means a visual record can be created, on to a flat surface, of a range of Celestial objects seen from a fixed observation site. The essential condition for this exercise is that a specific date and time must be established because the Celestial sky is apparently constantly on the move.
By the same means I described how it is possible, once the IDEA has been established, to achieve a circular GRID upon the flat surface, formed of equally measured ALTITUDE sub-divisions from ground level HORIZON at altitude 0*, up to vertically overhead ZENITH at altitude 90*. It is not necessary to give modern units (degrees) to these sub-divisions, but we can understand the system more easily if the sub-divisions are based upon equal altitude angles. In our modern time we use sub-divisions of 10*. .
Fig. 1 shows the principle involved and as described in part 1. By this means a flat, horizontal GRID of altitude circles is derived. If the vertical altitude sub-divisions are of equal spacing then this will represent equal steps on the flat grid but the spacing will not be equal. Rather they will narrow for values close to the horizon at altitude 0*, and widening steadily as altitude increases up to the zenith point vertically overhead at altitude 90*.
'As Above So Below'. It is quite easy to apply the principle of transferring altitude measurement on to a flat surface to other features of the Celestial sky above, as well as the application to the North Pole described in Part 1.
One of the most notable features of the North Point is that, by definition, it is fixed. It is the North end of the fixed axis of rotation (Polar Axis or Meridian) about which the sky appears to rotate. This means that, for a fixed point on Earth, it will always be at the same point in the sky regardless of date or time of day. This makes it one of the easier features of the Celestial sky to discover, explore, mark on to the flat ground surface.
Everything else within the Celestial sky is steadily and constantly moving as time progresses. Fortunately the motion is constant and regular. Objects follow a predictable path. However marking position is complicated by the fact that any position of any specific object needs the qualification of specifying time of day or season. (One way of eliminating this problem could be to only focus upon one clear and unique time of day or season such as moment of sunrise or sunset at solstice! This idea becomes very relevant as the Stonehenge story develops. A small detail but bear it in mind. It is very important.
Any position marked during any particular night for a specific object will mark that same object continuously into the future. Only the time of night will change steadily. It is easy to understand how the first people to explore motions in the heavens in a careful and intelligent way, very quickly began to realise just how steady and constant is the rhythm of the motion of the heavens. Once this concept was grasped and with a means of recording this pattern by 'transferring' the Celestial position to a flat surface, then the development of astronomy would prove to be inevitable.
Having mastered the principle and process of the recording procedure, it seems logical that an early astronomer would begin to apply it to the easiest, most visually obvious Celestial objects. These are sun, moon and probably planets - our nearest neighbours. The principle is easy enough to understand and it would almost be surprising, assuming that the interest was there, if somebody did not begin to mark the motion of these Celestial objects in this way. After all, so far as early Stonehenge is concerned, we are considering a possible process that could have spread over many centuries from late 4th to mid 3rd millennium B.C.
Fig. 2 shows the curve resulting from plotting, on to a flat surface, the passage of the sun across the sky on one day in summer. This could have been done over many years before a final result was achieved. - 'Practise makes perfect'.
The curve is achieved by physically measuring the altitude of the sun with the measuring device, and then steadily rotating the device progressively throughout the day with the sun as it moves round, so that a series of marks are transferred on to the flat recording surface.
It is almost possible to sense the wonderment on the part of the early explorers of the Cosmos as they first began to see this picture emerge. For an early student of the Cosmos who had spent a long time gazing up into the heavens and just wondering, this first picture of this curve must have been a revelation. It has a beauty in its own right, not least because it brings so much understanding. At a stroke the heavens ceased to be a remote and distant entity upon which we could only gaze from outside, and became a place within which we all dwelt and in which we were a part as much as the 'Gods' who had previously been so remote.
Having commented on the fact that the 'fixed' position of the north point is a special case amongst the moving picture of all else within the Celestial sky, we can consider the more complicated example of exploring this motion.
For the northern sky within the general area of Stonehenge, Celestial objects rise at some point on the eastern horizon, track across the sky, upwards and in a westerly direction, and then descend and set towards the western horizon. Highest point in the sky is towards due south (exactly opposite to the north point). Rising easterly point and setting westerly point, for a reasonably level horizon, will be on equal and opposite sides of the north-south axis (meridian). This is a process that is perfectly easy to understand.
To mark and record a specific object of thr sky following this process might appear at first consideration to be rather difficult - abstract. It is a three-dimensional situation which needs to be marked on to a two-dimensional flat and horizontal surface. There is changing position around a central point, and also changing height.
The process of observing and marking 'As Above So Below', described here earlier, can be used to mark the course of the object on to the flat 'Altitude Grid' using the hinged sighting device and plumb bob described in Part 1. As the object being observed travels across the sky, the whole device is rotated to follow it and a series of sightings are marked on the Grid.
Fig. 2 shows the result of the exercise. The sun is used in this example and its journey for the day is now recorded. This procedure can be repeated daily, weather permitting, on many occasions throughout a year and for many years. The result will improve with time and practise. The result, on the Altitude Grid, is a curve, symmetrical about the Polar Axis.
The actual intellectual achievement of the discovery and exploitation of this process and the knowledge that would begin to be acquired has to be a very significant step forward in the human understanding of our natural situation within the Cosmos. Official received wisdom concerning the discovery of such process and knowledge is ascribed to later astronomers of the Classical Greek and Middle Eastern world. But if it can be demonstrated to have existed here at Stonehenge in Late Neolithic Britain then this means that its discovery and application were far earlier.
The track of the sun, drawn on to the Altitude Grid, (Fig. 2) produces the picture shown here. This is for the mid-summer sun when. because of the tilt of the Earth's axis within the Celestial sky, northern latitudes are tilted towards the sun to an annual maximum, and the sun appears to be at its maximum altitude each day. (Note how high the sun has risen across the altitude circles as it passes south, and how far north it is when it rises and sets. This is the astronomical implication of mid-summer.) The height (altitude) of the sun changes on an annual cycle, through the seasons, being maximum at mid-summer and minimum at mid-winter. Hence the two solstices.
Furthermore, because of this annual cycle of rising and falling altitudes of the sun, the sun becomes a special case amongst other Celestial objects when observing and marking its path. But at the same time this property can be exploited to 'fix' a particular date within any one year.
Traditionally Stonehenge has always been associated with mid-summer solstice sunrise. This is the time when the sun rises at its maximum northerly position along the horizon. For Stonehenge this about north-east. (North-east is azimuth 45*. Stonehenge summer solstice sunrise in Late Neolithic was c. 49*.) This is the well-known direction of sighting from the centre of Stonehenge across the north-east horizon at the point marked by the Heelstone. There are no other horizon markers at Stonehenge of the significance of the Heelstone and so, along with the general design and layout of the monument, it is fair to assume that this was the priority observable feature of the Celestial sky, and the primary focus of Stonehenge as created.
Fig.3 again shows the track of the mid-summer sun across the sky but now we can begin to tie it in to the ground plan of Stonehenge. In this very first stage the alignment towards mid-summer solstice sunrise is marked from circle centre towards azimuth 49*. The alignment is also extended backwards towards south-west and the result is that we have created the main Stonehenge axis.
So far as this Main Stonehenge Axis is concerned, later on we shall see that this Axis line hides subtle complexities and that there is more than one axis. Nothing is quite as obvious as it seems at first sight with Stonehenge astronomy. Time and again we peel back one layer of integrated knowledge within the design and find more layers beneath - just like the soil-borne archaeology that occupies so much of the surrounding landscape. We shall see much of this as the story develops but to begin with - keep it simple.)
Now we have the system -
altitude circles ,
and the knowledge -
track of the sun.
We need to frame the Altitude Grid. Establish its presence on flat ground - on a GRAND scale.
A circle is a very easy shape to form in thought. Our framing circle required rather more effort and time. Thirty upright Sarsen pillars were erected to form the boundary or perimeter. And the circle topped off with the familiar Sarsen lintels. Examination of the remains of this outer Sarsen Circle show that the inside faces of the uprights were much more carefully worked and aligned than the outside faces. Therefore the inside is taken as priority. This becomes zero horizon on our grid - representing Altitude zero. Within the confines of the Sarsen Circle is the whole of the Cosmic sky. A 'wondrous' place indeed!
The top line of lintels were fitted famously level on their top faces. They formed a full artificial horizon, far enough above ground level to eliminate the natural loss of sky at low level due to refraction and normal atmospheric haze.
Now we have a 'frame' or horizon, a 'calibrated' grid of notional sub-division circles, a central zenith point, and a sun-rise axis. We also have knowledge - and technique. Now we can look to build a monument that will really give glory to our central fixation of the sun - AND SOMETHING ELSE THAT HIDES 'WITHIN' IT - but that comes later. And such a spectacular monument that it will astonish and enthral those lucky labourers who are going to have to do the work. And carry them forward to complete this mighty task that lies ahead. How to create a fitting construction?
In our modern times there are plenty of plans available of the present day remains of Stonehenge. Generally they are all pretty accurate. It has been surveyed a number of times over the last century or so. It is a simple exercise to super-impose the plan of the monument with the altitude grid and then work backwards to follow the thought line that went into the finished monument more than 4000 years ago.
The structure used to celebrate and memorialize in all its glory was the central formation of the Sarsen Trilithon Horseshoe. This structure with its massive five pairs of uprights and their lintelled tops, along with the lintelled outer Sarsen Circle, is famously unique throughout the world. It is big, heavy, beautiful even despite its partial dereliction, symbolic of an attitude from its builders that they would never be beaten, and has given many people, for many years, a healthy dose of mental exercise trying to justify it.
The Trilithon Horseshoe was erected more or less symmetrically about the sunrise axis. It reaches out to 'embrace' the rising sun, welcome its arrival. It is big and took much time, effort and skill to firstly design and then achieve.
There was, for the builders, a choice. Find the stones and haul them to site. Then erect them as an 'ornamental' feature just here and there - erratically, safe in the knowledge that just to stand pairs of uprights of such size in holes in the ground and top each pair with a lintel would create something spectacular and unforgettable.
The alternative was for them to create - invent - the Horseshoe, and then build into it acquired knowledge, simple fact but in a memorable (and recoverable) form. There are a number of ways that this could be done. A considerable part of the challenge for Stonehenge researchers is to identify ideas, concepts, thought lines that were indeed worked into the design. This theme forms much of the content of my other web-site where my full manuscript of nearly half a century of research is described.
(Go to:- www.secsignsls.co.uk The manuscript is 'Stonehenge 2020 - The Way Forward.)
Fig. 5 shows the plan of Stonehenge overlaid on to the Altitude Grid. The overlay immediately shows that the Trilithon Horseshoe matches well to the curve of the track of the mid-summer sun. The sun track enters the Horseshoe between uprights 52 and 53. The outline of 52 almost looks to have been shaped on the appropriate corner to 'guide' the track past.
The climax of this aspect of the Horseshoe design is the passage of the sun track above the central Great Trilithon and across the Stonehenge axis line as it passes through the archway. The back edge of this Trilithon stands, very neatly, on Altitude Circle value 56*. This is the correct altitude for the sun at this point and therefore the sun track crosses the Stonehenge axis exactly in the back edge of the footprint of the Great Trilithon. This is an exact parallel to the arrangement for marking the meridian North alignment on the corner of upright no. 60 as described in part !.
(Two 'hits' out of two possibilities. Referring to part 1, there was also a 'hit' where the altitude circle for 51* touches the bulge on the external face of Trilithon upright no. 54 as it stands on the south end of the meridian. Therefore we actually have three 'hits' out of three possibilities.)
Fig. 6 summarizes this construction through the vertical dimension. The base line is set on the main Axis line. Altitude is measured from the centre at 56*. It is clear that. with a Celestial Sphere based within the perimeter of the Sarsen Circle, altitude 56* intersects on to the Arc of the Sphere exactly above the rear edge of the Great Trilithon archway as the Main Stonehenge Axis passes through the archway.
(Frequently in my work, when discussing the matter of particular stones marking potentially significant Celestial bearings, I point out that it is usually a corner or an edge of that stone that is used. Here is just one more example.)
It is also worth noting that an altitude line up from the front edge of the Altar Stone would have just touched the front top corner of the Trilithon lintel, assuming, from the present-day remains of the Trilithon, that the Trilithon, before it collapsed in antiquity, had been constructed in an obviously logical and upright way.
If the alignment up from the Altar Stone was correct then this is one justification for the position of placing of it. It means that when the monument was originally complete then the sun would only have reached to the Altar Stone at mid-summer. For the remainder of the year the Altar Stone would have been shaded by the top lintel stone. A unique but very effective way of marking mid-summer along with the Heelstone sunrise alignment. It becomes increasingly clear, as more and more facts emerge, that it was mid-summer that was the main focus of the monument - THE DATE AND TIME - NOT NECESSARILY THE SUN.
Nowadays it would not be possible to reconstruct the Great Trilithon as it was and see this sunlight and shadow effect in this way because the altitude of the mid-summer sun has declined significantly since the Neolithic era. (I also point out, in passing, that the nature of the Celestial sky that the sun now occupies at mid-summer has changed considerably since the Neolithic. The whole configuration has changed considerably. People celebrating the mid-summer sun in our time are indeed celebrating JUST the sun. Sadly they are missing the point so far as Stonehenge is concerned because the SKY that the sun occupied at that time is now nearly two months distant. It begins to look as though it is coming time for a major re-think and re-alignment of our beliefs - but that is another subject and rather bigger than Stonehenge.)
Everything is designed to fill out this one picture of the passage of the mid-summer solstice sun in the Late Neolithic era. On the one hand it has given a clear and unambiguous picture of the several elements of design that have been woven together to create this clear picture. On the pether hand it has given a very clear signal of what Stonehenge is about and why Sarsen Stonehenge was built as it was.
The process, the method, and the result that I have here described, are the very heart and soul of the purpose and the beginning of Sarsen Stonehenge. From this process, this design, and this construction, all else would follow.
Also we gain a first clear and unambiguous insight into the underlying level of knowledge that we can expect to discover as we go forward. And it tells us in what direction we should be going as we dig deeper. It clearly shows us - in 2020 - 'The Way Forward'.
Study:- 'Stonehenge 2020 - The Way Forward' www.secsignals.co.uk
We can complete these first two basic sections of Stonehenge construction combined with Cosmic knowledge and astronomical means ('As Above So Below') with one further fact. There is one further piece of information to be obtained by applying this astronomical technique to the Celestial Grid over Stonehenge.
The Bluestone Circle is judged to have been the last of the four stone formations of the later versions of Sarsen Stonehenge to be constructed. Erected just within the perimeter Sarsen Circle, it was formed of approximately sixty upright Welsh Bluestones. The precise number cannot be obtained by archaeological excavation because of the modern ruinous condition of this circle and because so many stones have been robbed away and lost forever.
But the actual location of enough stones or remains survive, plus excavated stone holes that the position of the complete Circle can be established.
Fig. 7 shows, on the lower part, the plan of Stonehenge with the Bluestone Circle (just inside the outer Sarsen Circle).Above the plan is the cross section of the Celestial Arc with Altitude 40* shown.
A perpendicular from the 40* altitude point on the Arc down to the Altitude 40* circle on the Altitude Grid shows that this circle is just within the circle of the Bluestones.
Figs. 8 and 9 are a summary of the basic astronomy that describes the position of Earth within the Celestial Sphere and how the system of Meridian and Equator can be extended outwards on to the Sphere to summarise the position of Earth.
The North - South polar axis - 'meridian' - has already been described in section 1 of this web-site. And then how the main feature (the North Pole or North Point was marked and built into the design of the Sarsen Trilithon Horseshoe.
The other primary feature of this system is the Equator, firstly for Earth, and then for its extension outwards to the Celestial Sphere to represent the Celestial Equator. This system of Polar Meridian and Equator are the basic framing features which incorporate how the Earth exists and moves within the Celestial Sphere. They are the basic framework upon which the practise of astronomy measures and records features and events that happen within our sky.
Th most basic feature of the Celestial Equator is that it is perpendicular (at right angle , or 90*) to the Meridian. This is an exact corollary with our Earth-bound meridian and Equator. Equator is in the 'middle' or tropics, at latitude 0*. North and South poles are at 'top' and 'bottom' of Earth at latitude 90*.
To demonstrate knowledge of this system, the design of Stonehenge has firstly marked the North Point, as described, at altitude 51*. (Referring to Fig. 8 shows that, as location on the surface of Earth moves to a different latitude, further north or south, so the value for the altitude of North Point and Equator change correspondingly. These two values are dependent on the actual latitude value for the specific location.) At Stonehenge - latitude 51* - the altitude of the North Point is 51*. Because North Point and Equator are perpendicular to each other (at 90*) this means that the altitude of the Celestial Equator at Stonehenge latitude is 90* - 51* = 39*. Because the North Point at Stonehenge is in the northern sky, the Celestial Equator will be opposite and in the southern sky - opposite direction from the centre of Stonehenge.
Altitude value 40* as shown on the Celestial Sky Arc, corresponds to Altitude Circle 40* on the Celestial Grid below. This 40* circle is just slightly inside of the reconstructed position of the Bluestone Circle. Therefore the inner face of the Bluestone Circle corresponds to Altitude 39* which is the correct position to represent the Celestial Equator. Furthermore the Bluestone Circle encircles the monument as does the Celestial Equator encircle the full extent of the Celestial Sphere.
Therefore it can be deduced that the Bluestone Circle was intended to represent the Celestial Equator within the Stonehenge model of the Celestial System. And so the 'wondrous sky' represented within the Sarsen Circle has now been given a complete structure, exactly as modern astronomy has done. Our accurate 'model' of the Cosmos, with its 'modern' concept of a measuring and recording system, is now ready for us to start building on to it the REAL purpose for which it is intended. We will come to recognise that fact. There is little that is new under the sun.
Astronomy at Stonehenge Part 3 Completing the astronomical framework
So far, in parts 1 and 2, I have explained how Stonehenge was designed to demonstrate the basic framework that we need to describe and fix the Celestial System of which Earth is a part, Also our
place within this system. The technique of transferring observed positions of the basic fixed points of the system using the principle of 'As Above So Below' on to a flat horizontal surface and then gradually building a 'picture' of the System.
This works for the North Pole, Meridian and, by implication, South pole. Also the Celestial Equator. It has then provided the means to describe and 'fix' the path of the Neolithic mid-summer sun. The sun's path was 'captured' and recorded for posterity, literally in 'tablets of stone'
within the form and position of the Horseshoe of Trilithons. In particular the central Great Trilithon archway. (I argue strongly as the narrative develops, that it was that part of the Celestial Sky containing the Neolithic mid-summer sun that was the priority, the whole, central focus of the creation and achievement of Stonehenge. The sun was used as a 'means to an end'. But that is further along the road as yet. (For the complete picture, already published on-line, go to :- www.secsignals.co.uk and see 'Stonehenge 2020 - The Way Forward' on tab 2.
To complete this picture of our Celestial sky and the place of the sun and its journey within it, there is one further aspect of this picture that can be added. I have not yet discussed the track of the sun at mid-winter. A description of this within the design of Stonehenge would round off the discussion neatly.
It is also important because the setting of the sun at mid-winter solstice in the south-west sector of the Stonehenge landscape is a second fundamental marker that leads to a final interpretation of Stonehenge. The time of the Neolithic setting sun on this occasion helps to confirm that it is the Celestial SKY that always should be our prime focus for Stonehenge. The complex inter-weaving of summer and winter solstice rising and setting events at Stonehenge was a 'means to an end'. Never the first objective. With this in mind we can see the necessity to mark, if possible, the winter sunset event just as much as the summer solstice event. (Once again the theme is explained in great detail at:- wwwsecsignals.co.uk ) But for this summary on this web-site a shorter description of the significance and the marking of the event is appropriate.
It is not possible to 'describe' and 'capture' the event of mid-winter sun and sunset within Stonehenge construction using the technique for mid-summer sun track described previously of transferring and fixing Celestial Altitude from vertical measure to horizontal record. This is for the simple reason that the track of mid-winter solstice sun at Stonehenge does not rise high enough into the Celestial sky to distinguish, discriminate, and identify it on to a horizontal Grid.
At the northerly latitude of 51*N for Stonehenge, at mid-winter the sun achieved a maximum altitude, at mid-day, of C. 15*. Quick reference to the Altitude Grid shows how close altitude lines come at this value, close to the horizon. A different way was used.
It is a simple matter to calculate the altitude value from Stonehenge centre, out between the Sarsen uprights of the outer Sarsen Circle BENEATH the circle of lintels. Height of the uprights varies slightly (to accommodate lintel stones of varying thickness but yet form a very level top surface.) Heights are given within the range c. 13 ft. to 14 ft. Distance from centre to effective OUTER edge of the circle is c. 51 ft. This gives a calculated altitude of c. 14.8*. The precise value for Neolithic mid-winter solstice culminating altitude (at due south) was 14.87* This is a very precise result - almost too precise for this particular situation. The given value for the sun will be for sun centre. However, the sun track at mid-winter is less distinct, hazy. refracted, possibly indistinct, and travels for much of its route close to the horizon. It is less likely for the sun to show as a clear, sharp body at this time of year.
The Sarsen Circle, in the southern sector which is where the sun would have culminated, has vanished to a large extent, robbed away in antiquity. (There is even an argument put forward by some that the Sarsen Circle was never erected in this sector. None of this can now be proven because so much has gone.)
But, nevertheless, there are sufficient remains of the Circle in other sectors that CAN be measured and they produce the altitude value described above. Therefore it is strongly suggested that the height of the Sarsen Circle was set primarily to describe and to 'frame' the low point of the sun at mid-winter solstice. Alternatively the general form of the Sarsen Circle was planned and then options were considered for what height to build it to and this mid-winter sun maximum came top of a list of possibilities. This would complete the astronomical picture that Stonehenge was designed around and can still provide.
It would have been a very easy task for the builders to obtain the correct height for the Sarsen Circle by simply erecting a short line of vertical wooden posts and lashing horizontal bars on at the correct height during the appropriate season. (Effectively a 'mock-up' for the final Sarsen Circle. )
We can, again, make serious deductions from the foregoing. We can almost see how the 'thought-line' was developing - sense what was the final objective.
The sun culmination, at due south, though it fitted in to the design, was completely obscured from the centre of Stonehenge by the Trilithon upright no. 54. Therefore the sun, at mid-winter, had NOT the importance that it had at mid-summer. What WAS important was the position and the TIMING of it SETTING on the south-western horizon and seen through the archway of the Great Trilithon, along the Main Stonehenge Axis. Priority, as always within Stonehenge, was given to features and TIMES of maximum importance. When a feature did not need priority it was obscured or over-ridden. As always there is a path to follow - potential wrong turnings are shown as clearly as the correct route. Every detail seems to be thought out in advance.
I have described extensively, elsewhere, this winter solstice sunset process, the related astronomy, the spread over a 'season' at mid-winter of the light and shadow effect into and through the central heart of Stonehenge. I have described the significance that I can attribute to this event.
The setting event appears to be the priority use of the sun, not the culmination. Once again I can emphasise that, within the design, construction and use of Stonehenge at the time of its build in the late Neolithic period, the function of the sun was as a MARKER for a very small area of the Celestial sky. An area that SHARED with the sun at mid-summer sunRISE, and then was in precise OPPOSITION at mid-winter sunSET.
This is purely and simply the logical extrapolation of all of the construction features here described. To accept that only the sun was the objective is to read the front cover of this book but then fail to open it and begin to delve amongst the pages. No enquiring mind would accept that.
There is a challenge, here, for the student of our human story. Do you take up the book, look at the cover, think, 'I know all about that and I don't believe it anyway - there is no more for me to learn', and put the book back on the shelf to gather dust? Or do you think, 'This book looks as if it might yet teach me something new and of interest and importance', then open the book and explore within the pages? Do you accept the obvious at face value? Or does your curiosity lead you on to - 'The Way Forward'.